Lesson 2, Topic 3
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2.3 Different electronic components

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light-emitting diode, or LED, is a type of solid-state lighting device that uses a semiconductor to convert electricity into light. It emits light when current flows through it. LED’s use energy far more efficiently with little wasted heat.

It has two terminals:

  • Cathode 
  • Anode
  • A breadboard is a widely used tool to design and test circuit. 

  • You do not need to solder wires and components to make a circuit while using a bread board.

  • It is easier to mount components & reuse them.

  • Since, components are not soldered you can change your circuit design at any point without any hassle. 

  • There are a number of holes on the plastic box, arranged in a particular fashion.

  • A typical bread board layout consists of two types of region also called strips. Bus strips and socket strips. Bus strips are usually used to provide power supply to the circuit. It consists of two columns, one for power voltage and other for ground.


A resistor is an electrical component that limits or regulates the flow of electrical current in an electronic circuit.Resistor is a two-terminal device.


A capacitor(originally Known as condenser ) is an electronic passive device which has the ability to store energy in the form of  electric charge that creates potential difference which is static voltage. 

The capacitor consists of two parallel metallic (conductive)  plate which are not connected together and separated by an insulating material or air. This insulating material is known as dielectric.Unlike resistor capacitor does not dissipate energy , it stores energy.


“A motor is a machine that converts electrical energy to mechanical energy.”

In another word, the electrical energy is a “battery” and the mechanical energy is the “rotation.” 

1. When electric current flows through an electrical wire placed between two magnets facing each other, it generates force. Electric current, magnetic field, and motion respectively apply perpendicular directions to each other just as when you open the middle finger (electric current), the forefinger (magnetic field) and the thumb (force) of your left hand respectively to mutually orthogonal axes.

2. When the electric current flows through the electrical wire, it generates a magnetic field around. The magnetic field attracts or repels the magnetic field from magnets, which generate force to move the electric wire. The electrical energy here is “electric current,” and the mechanical energy is “force.”